A Comprehensive Guide to Biofloc Fish Farming in India 2024

Beginners looking for a sustainable and financially feasible strategy will find Biofloc fish farming to be especially interesting as it has become an innovative and environmentally beneficial technology in the field of aquaculture. This thorough manual explores the principles, advantages, detailed procedures, Government Subsidy, and even factors to take into account while choosing training facilities in India.

Understanding the Principle of Biofloc Fish Farming:

In traditional fish farming, the accumulation of waste from food, feces, and urine poses a significant challenge to water quality. Elevated levels of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate can lead to various health issues in fish. Here enters Biofloc fish culture, introducing a natural ecosystem that converts ammonia into nitrite and then into nitrate. Finally, bacteria transform nitrate into gaseous nitrogen, enhancing water quality. This process, in conjunction with phytoplankton and zooplankton, not only maintains water quality but also provides additional nutritional value to the aquaculture system.

In simpler terms, Biofloc fish farming minimizes the waste of fish food in ponds, converting fish waste and leftover food into bacterial protein that is edible for the fish. This innovative system reduces the need for water changes, making it a more sustainable and efficient method compared to traditional farming.

The Benefits of Biofloc Fish Farming in India:

  1. Profitability: Biofloc fish farming proves to be more profitable than traditional methods.
  2. Ammonia Reduction: The system naturally reduces ammonia levels, creating a healthier environment for fish.
  3. Natural Food Source: Fish receive natural and nutritious food, enhancing their overall well-being.
  4. High Protein Diet: Fish in Biofloc systems experience enhanced protein intake, promoting growth.
  5. Exceptional Growth Rates: Biofloc fish farming often leads to remarkable growth in fish.
  6. Disease Resistance: The occurrence of diseases is minimal, accounting for less than 1% of fish.
  7. Excellent Water Quality: The system maintains consistently good water quality, a significantfactor in successful aquaculture.

Building the Biofloc Fish Farming Infrastructure:

Constructing an efficient Biofloc fish farm involves several essential steps. The tank must be designed with a slope from all sides towards central drainage to facilitate water removal. A 15 cm down pipe ensures effective drainage without blockages. A 4-diameter tank with a water level of 1M, leaving 0.2 tank empty, is recommended. Incorporating eight oxygen pipes into the tank ensures proper aeration, a key factor in maintaining water quality.

Water Treatment Protocols for Success:

In Biofloc fish farming, water treatment is critical. The two most important ingredients in water treatment are probiotics and molasses. Black jaggery is used to make molasses, which is boiled and combined with water to create a liquid. 10 milliliters (ML) of molasses are added to a 1000-liter tank; for a 10,000-liter tank, the amount is increased to 100 ML. Market-available probiotics are added at a rate of 5 milliliters per 1000 liters, increasing to 50 milliliters for a tank holding 10,000 liters. These elements are essential for promoting bacterial development and preserving the purity of the water.

Biofloc Fish Farming in India

Key Considerations in Biofloc Fish Farming:

  • Tank Preparation: Clean the tank thoroughly with soap and sun-dry it for a day before initiating the Biofloc system.
  • Water Aeration: Apply aeration from an air pump with an air stone for two days to ensure proper oxygenation.
  • TDS Measurement: After two days, check the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with a tool, aiming for a minimum value of 1800 and not exceeding 2000.
  • pH Level Management: Keep the pH level between 6-8, adjusting with slaked lime or dolomite if necessary.

Choosing Fish Seeds and Introducing Them to the Tank:

Selecting healthy and compatible fish seeds is important for the success of a Biofloc fish farm. Characteristics such as completeness, cleanliness, and playfulness are indicators of robust fish. Acclimate the fish to the tank environment gradually, withholding food for the first day and introducing it after 12 hours.

Feed Management for Optimal Growth:

In Biofloc fish farming, the kind of food that is fed to the fish is important. Food that is swimmable keeps it from sinking to the bottom and generating ammonia, which is poisonous to fish. Fish size should be taken into account when adjusting protein intake; smaller fish initially need a higher protein content. Three to five percent of the fish’s weight should be fed.

Water Management for Sustainable Practices:

Sustaining water quality is essential to the profitability of fish farming with Biofloc. An important factor is the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which should ideally be kept at 20–40% floc. Probiotics and molasses modifications are required if floc levels fluctuate. In addition, the system may need to replace the water if it detects a bad odor or low water quality.

Harvesting and Medication Protocols:

Harvesting in the afternoon or evening is recommended, with a 12-hour fasting period before harvest. Slow water drainage during harvest preparation ensures the well-being of the fish. In case of illnesses, antibiotics or natural remedies like ground papaya leaves can be employed. Medication dosage should be carefully administered based on the severity of the condition.

Ensuring Healthy Fish Cubs and Biomass Management:

The health of fish seeds is critical for the success of a Biofloc fish farm. Adequate biomass is essential for feeding fish, and calculations based on weight ensure optimal food distribution. Special attention is required for weak or sick fish, with the incorporation of vitamins and antibiotics into their diet.

Calculation of Ammonia Levels and Biofloc Fish Farming Guide:

Understanding the ammonia levels in the water is vital for maintaining a healthy Biofloc system. Ammonia testing kits help determine the concentration, and calculations involving molasses and carbon are used to control ammonia effectively. The C/N ratio plays a important role in the conversion of ammonia to protein, highlighting the core purpose of Biofloc fish farming.

Guidance on Making FCO (Floc Carbon Oxygen) in Biofloc Fish Farming:

FCO is a vital component in the digestion of fish food and contributes to ammonia control. The guide provides two methods for preparing FCO, emphasizing the importance of its application in enhancing the efficiency of the Biofloc system.

Pros and Cons of Biofloc Fish Farming

Pros: Biofloc Technology

  1. Nutrient-Rich Flocs:
    • Biofloc Technology (BFT) produces nutrient-rich flocs that are abundant in protein, vitamins, and phosphorus. This serves as an excellent food source for fish and shrimp, promoting their health and growth.
  2. Improved Water Quality:
    • Allowing microorganisms to proliferate within the biofloc systems can enhance water quality by fixing toxic nitrogen. This microbial activity acts as a natural water treatment remedy, creating a healthier environment for aquatic organisms.
  3. Higher Performance Indicators:
    • Farmers have reported higher performance indicators in Biofloc systems compared to traditional aquaculture techniques. This includes reduced mortality rates, increased larval development, and improved growth rates for cultured species.
  4. Reduced Environmental Impact:
    • One of the significant advantages of Biofloc technology is its low environmental impact. The system relies on limited water exchange, minimizing pollution and improving overall biological safety during the production process.
  5. Land and Water Use Efficiency:
    • Biofloc systems exhibit improved land and water use rates. The reduced need for water exchange contributes to more efficient resource utilization, making it a sustainable choice for fish farming.

Cons: Biofloc Technology

  1. Warm-up Period and Seasonal Variability:
    • Biofloc systems require a warm-up period, and the output may not be consistent between seasons. This variability in performance can pose challenges for producers who need reliable and constant production.
  2. Higher Energy Costs:
    • The continuous mixing and aeration required in biofloc ponds can lead to higher-than-expected energy costs. Producers need to factor in these operational expenses when implementing and managing Biofloc systems.
  3. Active Management Required:
    • Producers must actively manage biofloc ponds to prevent issues like nitrite accumulation and maintain alkalinity levels within healthy limits. This requires consistent monitoring and intervention to ensure the well-being of fish and shrimp.
  4. Environmental Vulnerability:
    • Biofloc systems can increase the content of suspended solids in the water, leaving fish and shrimp vulnerable to environmental influences. Producers need to closely monitor and manage these factors to protect the health of the aquatic organisms.
  5. Species Suitability:
    • Biofloc is best suited for benthic species such as shrimp and tilapia. Sensitive species may struggle to thrive in this type of environment, limiting the range of species suitable for Biofloc fish farming.
Biofloc Fish Farming Training

Training Centers for Biofloc Fish Farming in India:

Starting a Biofloc fish farming operation involves both practical and theoretical understanding. Various training centers in India offer comprehensive courses on Biofloc technology. The list includes centers in Rajasthan, Delhi, Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Odisha, each contributing to the dissemination of knowledge and fostering sustainable practices in aquaculture.

Top Biofloc Fish Farming Training Centers in India

  1. Biofloc Fish Farming Training Center – Rajasthan
    • Location: Sanganer, Sector 3, Pratap Nagar, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302033
    • Contact: Mobile No. 9672868980
    • Official Website: freshwaterpearlsfarming.com
  2. Rocketskills – Biofloc Fish Farming Course – Delhi
    • Location: Flat No. 218, 1st Floor, Lahore Apartments, Vasundhra Enclave, Delhi, Delhi, 110096
    • Contact: Mobile No. +91-9654658260
    • Website: rocketskills.in
  3. Centre for Agriculture and Rural Development (CARD) – Haryana
  4. Karnataka Advanced Biofloc Fish Farming – Karnataka
  5. ICAR-Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture – Tamil Nadu
    • Location: 75, Santhome High Road, MRC Nagar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600028
    • Contact: Telephone No. +91-44-24618817, 24616948, +91-044-24610311
    • Website: ciba.res.in
  6. Jaipur Fresh Water Pearls Farming – Rajasthan
    • Location: 10/29, Pratap Nagar Housing Board, Sector 1, Near KV 6, Sanganer, Jaipur, 302033
    • Contact: Phone: 9672868980
    • Website: freshwaterpearlsfarming.com
  7. Biofloc Fish Farming Training Centre – Odisha
  8. Jaipur Fresh Water Pearls Farming – Bihar
    • Location: Address: Icar Parisar Rd, Near, Phulwari Sharif, Jair, Bihar 800014
    • Contact: Mobile No. +916122223962
    • Website: icarrcer.in

Before enrolling in any training center, it is advisable to gather comprehensive information about Biofloc technology from local practitioners. Understanding the practical aspects and experiences shared by existing Biofloc farmers can enhance your learning journey in this innovative and sustainable method of fish farming.

Government Subsidy for Biofloc Fish Farming in India

The government’s Biofloc fish farming subsidy prioritizes affordability and accessibility, championing eco-friendly practices. Aiming to curtail traditional fisheries’ environmental impact, the subsidy supports farmers in each kilogram of fish production, spanning supplies, labor, and more. Under PMMSY, a robust 40% subsidy covers setup, training, fingerlings, feed, and pond construction. This initiative propels sustainable fisheries development, amps up fish production, and sparks employment. Farmers can seek up to 40% of setup costs, facilitating broad adoption. State-wise initiatives in Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, and Maharashtra add extra support, with subsidies from 40% to Rs. 3 lakh, aligning with the overarching goal of sustainable aquaculture development.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Biofloc Fish Farming

Q1. Is Biofloc fish farming suitable for beginners?

Answer: Yes, Biofloc fish farming is an excellent choice for beginners due to its cost-effectiveness and sustainable nature. Training centers provide comprehensive guidance for novices to successfully venture into this eco-friendly aquaculture method.

Q2. How can farmers avail the subsidy for Biofloc fish farming?

Answer: Interested farmers must apply to relevant authorities, providing detailed information about their proposed farms. Once approved, they can receive up to 40% of the setup cost, facilitating widespread adoption of Biofloc technology.

Q3. What are the benefits of Biofloc fish farming?

Answer: Biofloc fish farming offers several advantages, including reduced water exchange, minimized pollution, and healthier fish with improved growth rates. Training programs cover these benefits, emphasizing the sustainable and eco-friendly aspects of Biofloc technology.

Q4. Is the Biofloc system eco-friendly?

Answer: Yes, the Biofloc system is environmentally friendly as it promotes sustainability by recycling waste and reducing overall water inputs. Training centers highlight the eco-friendly features of Biofloc technology, making it a responsible choice for fish farming.

Q5. How do I choose the right Biofloc fish farming training center?

Answer: Before selecting a training center, it’s advisable to gather information about Biofloc technology from local practitioners. Look for centers that provide hands-on experience, practical insights, and comprehensive guidance to ensure a well-rounded understanding of Biofloc fish farming.


In conclusion, Biofloc fish farming stands out as a sustainable, eco-friendly, and economically viable approach to aquaculture. This guide imparts essential knowledge on biofloc fish farming technology, serving as a comprehensive resource for beginners. Embark on your Biofloc journey with dedication, a thirst for continuous learning, and a firm commitment to sustainable fish farming practices.

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Hello friends, I'm Nasimul Haq, the Writer, and Founder of this blog. I'm passionate about sharing valuable insights for farmers, gardeners, and agriculture enthusiasts. While we aim to provide helpful content, remember to consult local experts for personalized advice.

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